With the help of new technologies, Third World countries can transform their raw materials and energy into value-added commodities and thereby accelerate economic development without dysfunctional effects. It is the responsibility of developed countries, Colombo concludes, to see that this happens. Though desirable, the alliances proposed by Colombo are not easily established. As Gerald Dinneen points out in his paper on trends in international technological cooperation, international arrangements, whether they be international marketing organizations, joint ventures, or creation of subsidiaries, are necessary if industries are to get a proper return on investment and remain competitive.
Despite these barriers, Dinneen says, international labs and exchanges of scholars and students in schools of engineering have been effective mechanisms for fostering international cooperation. Western Europe, he says, faces the unique difficulties posed by its diversity and nationalistic tendencies.
George Pake describes a number of key advances in software: architecture of hardware systems used for software development; advances in writing, editing, running, and debugging of software; development of different programming languages; and systematic forward planning and task analysis. The creativity so evident in software technology today is not in danger, Pake says, despite the trend toward greater standardization and the possibility that ossification of the development system could occur in the future. Pierre Aigrain addresses several provocative questions about materials, particularly pertaining to the rate at which discoveries are made, the extent to which applications are found, and the impact of these discoveries on industry and society.
Citing the influence of the market and the continued interaction between science and materials research, Aigrain predicts that the rapid trajectory of materials discovery will continue. However, processing. The development of superconductors illustrates this point, and he concludes with a description of the impact these new materials in particular will have on industry and society. Lars Ramqvist provides insight on several of the cutting edge technologies that have had a major impact on information technologies.
These include VLSI technology, computers, software and artificial intelligence, fiber optics, networks, and standards. In addition, he looks at three main applications of information technologies—normal voice telephony, mobile telephony, and data communications—assessing, first, the current state of the art and, second, projections for the future.
Overview | Globalization of Technology: International Perspectives | The National Academies Press
Ramqvist concludes that because information technologies allow for the dissemination of information, and thus understanding, they will form the basis for a more equitable, humane society. Hiroshi Inose examines the telecommunications sector from a different angle—the effect of globalization on the entire industry. Particular technological advances, for example, the convergence of service modes and the microelectronics revolution, provide economies of scale but also require rapid inputs for capital investment.
Among the problems and challenges Inose addresses are the software crisis, or the high cost of developing more sophisticated and diversified software; structural changes in industry, particularly in job design and labor requirements; standardization and maintaining interoperability between systems and equipment; reliability and security of systems against both external and internal disturbances; and integrity of information and protection of privacy. Like Ramqvist, Inose views telecommunications technology as the means to promote mutual understanding and cultural enrichment worldwide.
Perspectives on the impact of technology on another industrial sector—construction—are presented by Alden Yates who describes the most significant trends in the areas of construction-related design, construction equipment and methods, automation and expert systems, and construction management. Computer-aided design has, among other things, improved communication between designer and supplier and speeded up the design development process. Increases in productivity are being achieved through off-site fabrication and assembly and robotics. Logistics practices, skill requirements, and labor-management relations are also changing as a result of these new technologies.
In the long run, however, the effectiveness of management will determine success. Pehr Gyllenhammar makes a complementary point about the importance of management practices in his paper on the manufacturing industry. To claims that the manufacturing sector is on the decline in an increasingly. One of the most influential changes has been the new technologies employed in the automotive sector, including new engineering materials, computer-aided design, robots, and microcomputers. These new technologies mean that decision making can become decentralized and that small-scale manufacturing can be cost-effective.
Another important factor changing the manufacturing industry has been new demands from employees and customers, what Gyllenhammar refers to as the invisible contract between them and the corporation. In fact, the new technologies have brought about important changes in the way work is organized. Less desirable tasks have been taken over by robots; light, flexible technologies allow workers to organize themselves so that they command the technology instead of vice versa; and new materials-handling mechanisms permit the layout of equipment to fit particular work organizations.
The challenge for managers lies in organizing production so that they can develop their workers through both technical and leadership training. Gyllenhammar concludes that a viable manufacturing industry is necessary but not sufficient to solve the problems of unemployment and slow growth. The manufacturing industry is also the subject of the paper by Emilio Carrillo Gamboa; however, he discusses the issue of production sharing as both a result and a means of globalizing industry.
By moving production facilities abroad to low-wage developing countries, firms manufacturing products that have entered the downside of the product cycle can maintain a competitive cost advantage. Mexico, in particular, has become an important production-sharing partner for the United States because of proximity, demographic factors, and the Mexican economic crisis which has resulted in lower wage levels that are competitive with labor costs in the developing countries of Asia and government programs that support production-sharing.
The maquiladoras, or production sharing sites, have been the subject of debate in Mexico for a number of reasons: the benefits of foreign-owned assembly services are not extended to the rest of the economy, the maquiladoras do not absorb traditional unemployment, and they are too vulnerable to swings in the U. In addition, some of the plants have been criticized for their poor working conditions. Nevertheless, the author contends that they are an important source of income, employment, and foreign exchange, and proposes that the production sharing offers significant economic opportunities if the competitive advantages of Mexico as a production-sharing site are improved and assembly activities are more closely linked with the domestic economy.
Carrillo Gamboa acknowledges the objections to offshore production sharing but suggests that its economic and political advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. For example, gross national product GNP has increased rapidly due to the globalization of industry, and export-driven economies have helped the Pacific Rim nations overcome the disadvantages of scale and the shortage of foreign exchange.
Kolm asserts that progress in the region is likely to continue, considering that there are suitable gradations of development, ample raw materials in the region as a whole, and a populace that has demonstrated its ability to cope with technological change. The focus of the paper then narrows to an examination of the problems and challenges facing the major groupings of Pacific Rim countries: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN ; the newly industrializing countries, in particular, the Republic of Korea; Australia; and the United States and Japan. Despite their diversity and the impediments they have faced in their industrialization, Kolm contends that technology transfer has been less problematic in the Pacific Rim than in other countries of the world, a sign of hope that competition can coexist with cooperation.
Enrique Martin del Campo deals specifically with the influence of technology on development in the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Shifts in economic strength and investment patterns influence the developing countries and make it imperative for them to develop strategies for growth through improved technological and entrepreneurial activity. Because the economies of the region, like most developing countries, participate in the international sphere through foreign trade, competitiveness in foreign markets is crucial.
The rate of innovation, the ability to apply advanced technology, the degree of capital investment, use of natural resources, and the existence of technological support services all affect the competitiveness of Latin America in foreign markets. Two major factors, however, hamper economic growth in Latin America. Any plan to remedy these problems would require a strong technological component, including development of local capabilities in technology, internal and external transfer of technology, strategic projects that integrate science and technology, and government policies that support scientific and technological endeavors.
Ralph Landau and Nathan Rosenberg review the impact of technological change on U. They cite several key influences on such growth, including technological innovation, high capital investment rates, and increased training of the total work force. The authors conclude that U. One change that poses both opportunities and difficulties is the rapid diffusion of technology to other countries. Said, 11 Intellectuals a world minority which makes many intellectuals believe they have no choice but to act on their knowledge.
Many college campuses are set up to encourage social action, such as having a common building that houses all organizations.
This allows students to connect easily and centrally. Colleges house many different organizations working toward the same goal of improving the world, which has the potential of creating strong alliances between the social movements. College students also have the unique opportunity to participate in mass social movements because they are old enough to be considered adults, educated enough to vocalize their opinions in the form of a social movement, but are not yet tied down. North American college students are also at a disadvantage when creating alliances with social movements outside the boundaries of campus.
As mentioned earlier, a college educated person is part of the elite. This means that.
Global Interdependence Essay examples
Read More. Words: - Pages: 4. Words: - Pages: 8. Words: - Pages:. Words: - Pages: 5. Main Challenges Facing the Contemporary World Economy Essay examples because technology permits a greater degree of interdependence than has previously been possible. Words: - Pages: 6. Essay Globalization : A World Based Growth scholars means evolution of global markets for standardized products and services and the companies who serve those markets have a world based growth.
Words: - Pages: 3. Essay Classical Liberalism And International Relations Theory From my point of view, Classical Liberalism is a relatively effective international relations theory because it points out the importance of the economic interdependence between states, democracy, and international organizations in promoting peace.
Essay U. Companies are choosing to expand internationally for many different reasons. This paper will focus on the Nike Co. This paper will also highlight the influence of the foreign corrupt Act on the Nike Company and touch on interdependence policy Such unity can be reached only by recognizing human values, especially human rights.
However, these rights must be strictly determined and more than mere obligations. Hence, the most important task for philosophy is to develop foundations and principles for a world society and to formulate a global consciousness and a humanistic worldview that adequately reflects the realities of our epoch Economic development is regularly distinguished as the most advanced aspect of globalisation, itself containing significant components that are recognised in shaping inter-connected global activity, such as finance, production and trade Newman and Thornley This new and unprecedented situation is the term of globalization.
Globalization can be seen as the present process of becoming global by the emergence of a world economy, a cosmopolitan culture and international social movements. Nowadays, we cannot avoid the notion of globalization as it affects everyone since it presents them with a world context which influences them in some of their doings In the discussion that follows I engage two main strands, a how globalization operates through flows, commodity chains, financialization and cities, and b the dynamics of transnational social movements and global social change.
In the final section, Globalization Flows: Commodity Chains and Financialization Globalization engages complex and interconnected processes that operate unevenly across both space and time Research Papers words 9 pages Preview. The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness GLOBE international research project defined effective organizational leadership as "the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are membe These are all international brands and huge multinational organizations with many years of experience in the motor industry.
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There are currently ,, registered passenger vehicles in use in the US, and about 10 to 11 million which reached the end of their useful lives and are taken out of service annually. Retrieved from www. This transformation together with networks of international alliances begins to show an unprecedented need for a lingua franca. In this context, English is presented as the global language or lingua franca necessary for global intercommunication World expansion between and offers a helpful perspective on the world since By examining the five key fields of conflict, from Imperial China to the Aztec and Inca Empires, he demonstrates how cultural, economic, and political areas of impact overlapped and expanded Better Essays words 1.
Disregarding moral principles, the current consumption of resources and the emissions they produce are not sustainable, which is based on factual evidence. Greenhouse gasses, such as carbon dioxide and methane have caused the rise in temperature. Alternative energy, such as wind power and solar is not required but recommended for the self-interest of each state. Each state is capable of making rational decisions in regards to the global climate change; each state 's primary concern should be their security and self-interests The first being the creation of a new class of individuals referred to as the New Global Professionals Culture and Globalization, n.
Reich as cited in Culture and Globalization, n.source
The Pros And Cons Of Globalization
These number income inequality. Income inequality can be divided into two kinds: within country inequality and between country inequality Better Essays words 7. The refugee crises itself poses a danger to the global community, however, it also forces us to ask a bigger question: how far should we go to protect human dignity. In modern politics we see issues of foreign intervention and border control, and often reflect on how our world became globalized.